The Intellectual Needs Society J.K Nyerere

Below is excerpt from Nyerere speech ‘The Intellectual Needs Society’ delivered at the University of Liberia, Monrovia, 29th February, 1969

“There is no doubt, of course, that the knowledge which has been acquired at schools and higher educational institutions can be used almost exclusively for personal gain, with benefit to the society being a mere by-product. Indeed, it is sometimes seems that we have organized our societies in this basis, as the temptation of highest wages often connected with the least socially useful occupations. But even in the most needed positions, highly educated and skilled people can at present often abuse their trust if they mind to do so……..Instead of accepting that they have debt of service to repay, these individuals demand greater and greater differentials between them and the unskilled labourer, on the grounds they they are ‘key workers’ – that without an engineer no bridge can be built etc….. But how far are we educated people going to take demand for higher a higher reward, which we have already established? It is true that the bridge cannot be built without the engineer; but it cannot be built without the labourers either”

Published in: on July 3, 2014 at 8:39 am  Leave a Comment  

The Tyranny of Experts: Economist, Dictators and the Forgetten Rights of the Poor by William Easterly


For those who have been following aid issues especially its criticism and how to make the system work, you will be interested to read this new book on how the Experts becomes the tyranny and burden to the whole development process

Over the last century, global poverty has largely been viewed as a technical problem that merely requires the right “expert” solutions. Yet all too often, experts recommend solutions that fix immediate problems without addressing the systemic political factors that created them in the first place. Further, they produce an accidental collusion with “benevolent autocrats,” leaving dictators with yet more power to violate the rights of the poor.

In The Tyranny of Experts, economist William Easterly, bestselling author of The White Man’s Burden, traces the history of the fight against global poverty, showing not only how these tactics have trampled the individual freedom of the world’s poor, but how in doing so have suppressed a vital debate about an alternative approach to solving poverty: freedom. Presenting a wealth of cutting-edge economic research, Easterly argues that only a new model of development—one predicated on respect for the individual rights of people in developing countries, that understands that unchecked state power is the problem and not the solution —will be capable of ending global poverty once and for all.

You can read more book reviews from here, here and here

Published in: on June 13, 2014 at 8:51 am  Leave a Comment  
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The Story of Telling by Bernadette Jiwa

For those who likes to be challenged and inspired on why and how they do things in life, check out this website “The Story of Telling“. She is just amazing on how she uses Story Telling to make almost anything you want to do different and successful. She aptly put it “Marketting is not a Department – It’s a Story of How you create Difference for your Customer”.

Published in: on May 25, 2014 at 2:08 pm  Leave a Comment  
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Workshop on Art and Social Change by Billy Kahora at Soma Book Cafe

What is the role of the artist/writer as an agent of social change? How can poets and writers animate youth voice? How can the creative community in Dar and beyond work together to strengthen creative expression? These are just a few of the questions we’ll explore in a day-long dialogue/workshop with guest Billy Kahora, editor of KWANI? in Nairobi, Kenya.   
We’ll introduce ourselves, hear from Billy, have large and small group discussions, explore the idea of a literary digital map of Dar & beyond, and talk about the most current projects / initiatives strengthening & building a community of creative expression in Dar es Salaam and Tanzania as a whole.   
We hope you can join us for this exciting day!  RSVP by March 6, 2014 — limited spaces available! Invite is also being sent via email, please check and respond as soon as possible.  
Published in: on February 28, 2014 at 11:19 am  Leave a Comment  

If You Think – A Poem from a friend

This poem was generously shared by friend Fanaka

If you think

If you think, and think deeply

Then you will see, the play of any

So life itself confuse

As she comes visit and greet, basically patrol

These are the thoughts, the day that a man can focus

And my lines still are

Like an art on the wall someone could be interested

Then if you think

You may ask yourself

What is the point for all these?

All these worries, ideas and adventures we tend to accomplish

When you think of just a shrub

Or a bush and there you spend your days

Happily just like the centipede

Or in water like a nile perch

If you think of what is in others minds

The memories of junctions and skirts on their waste

Men and women whose evening set them alone

Like a dying donkey still with a luggage to the boss

So i have to write and suffer

Like a religious man applying for a divorce

Wives have become thorns

The last line are taken to the front lines

Many have admit this mind capacity can think

 And the announcements are just to the ears that does not listen

Call it wisdom, call it insanity, in this age everybody can think

And if you can think and fear your thoughts

While there are great things, the beam of light in a dark tunnel

So these are my thoughts, the avoidance of a whispering a dangerous hearing

Well to you my friend

That in a letter written by a pen its ages you can read

All is well to even all the streets

Where tiny beings stay and primitive streams pass

As they go down the valley

And you think they have forgot all their miseries

A man torment a fellow man

And the world become a shelf of sad and sweet memories

Like those days when we were all kids

The days we couldn’t think all these shall be us then

The ordinary men, that’s we

And if you think, this life is just.

One place of its kind, the valleys that eggless and owls leaves their feathers

Fertilizing the earth and pile grasses

Like an astonishing collection or art

I think that’s what the world is

The rivers and flowers of the wild

The physic us and the emptiness we can never touch

The good and the evil of men

That you think exist but never exist

Like a plan to build a railway line across the sea..



By Mickfanaka Steven Mwihomeke  20th January 10:32 morning

Published in: on January 28, 2014 at 11:05 am  Leave a Comment  
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Kutoka UDADIS Blog

Dondoo: Prof Ngugi wa Thiong’o aliutoa mhadhara huu kwa lugha ya Kiswahili jambo ambalo kwa mujibu wa Dakta Martha Qorro hakuwahi kulifanya kabla kwenye mihadhara yake katika Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam (UDSM). Tuliupata mhadhara huu katika ‘hard copy’ na kutokana na umuhimu wake tumeamua kuuchapa upya ili watu wengi wanufaike nao. Kama kutapatikana makosa yoyote yale yaliyojitokeza wakati wa kuuchapa upya, ni yetu.
Ado Shaibu,
Mwendeshaji wa ukurasa wa  “Kitabu Nilichosoma”
( )


Ngugi wa Thiong’o
Katika mhadhara huu, nataka kuangalia na kufafanua, kwa ufupi tu, uhusiano wa kitaaluma kati ya lugha za Afrika na Ulaya, na hasa Kiingereza. Jambo hili ni muhimu katika wakati huu, ambapo nchi nyingi za Afrika zinasheherehekea miaka hamsini tangu zipate uhuru wake toka utawala wa kikoloni.
Msomi, au mwanataaluma wa aina yeyote ile, si kitu kipya kwa Afrika: Kila jamii, za leo au za kale, zilikuwa na wasomi au wanataaluma wake. Tunalitumia hili neno “msomi” kwa maana ya mtu anayeshughulika na fikra. Yawezekana kwamba msomi huyo huenda akawa ana ujuzi mwingine; lakini kazi yake kuu inayojitokeza ni matokeo ya kujishughulisha kwake na fikra. Katika kundi hili wanaingia pia waganga wa kimwili na kiroho, wahunzi (au wafua vyuma), wajenzi, na mafundi wengineo.
Watu kama hawa walikuwa miongoni mwa wajenzi wa utamaduni wa Misri, Uhabeshi, Zimbabwe, Songhai, na kwingineko. Kati ya hao, alikuwamo pia mshairi  ambaye alichanganya ujuzi wa historia, maadili na utabiri. Afrika ya Magharibi , mtu kama huyo aliitwa “griot”. Uswahilini kulikuwa na washairi wengi waliokuwa viongozi wa fikra, na ambao wameendelea kuweko karne baada ya karne. Kitabu alichokihariri Abdilatif Abdalla  na kuchapishwa na shirika la Mkuki na Nyota, kiitwacho Kale ya Washairi wa Pemba: Kamange na Sarahani kina majina ya wachache kati ya hao. Miongoni mwao wakiwemo Fumo Liyongo wa Bauri (Karne ya kumi na mbili); Zahidi Mgumi (karne ya kumi na nne); Muyaka bin Haji; Sud bin Said Al-Maamiriy; Kamange na Sarahani (wote ni karne ya kumi na tisa); na wengineo walioishi katika karne ya ishirini.
Washairi kama hawa  walikuwa ni sauti ya jamii zao, na pia watetezi wa haki. Ni muhimu kueleza hapa kwamba washairi-wasomi kama hao-  tangu hizo zama za ustaarabu wa Misri, mpaka katika ustaarabu wa Waswahili – walitumia lugha za jamii zao. Yaani wasomi wa kabla ya kuvamiwa na utawala wa kikoloni, walikuwa wameshikamana na mizizi ya jamii zao.
Leo nataka kuzungumza, kwa ufupi tu, kuhusu msomi Mwafrika wa zama zetu. Yaani msomi aliyekwenda shule za kisasa, na kupata elimu yake kwa kupitia lugha za ulaya. Kuna nyuso mbili za msomi kama huyu, ambazo zinapingana; na pia kuna  mihula miwili iliyopita ambayo pia inapingana.
Wasomi Waafrika walioshiriki katika mapambano dhidi ya ukoloni, walizichukua hazina zilizokuwamo kaika lugha za kigeni, na wakazipeleka hazina hizo katika lugha za Afrika na kuzitajirisha. Katika nchi iliyoitwa Gold Coast (ambayo leo inaitwa Ghana) kulichapishwa taarifa katika gazeti lililoitwa The Gold Coast People la tarehe 30 Novemba 1893. Taarifa hiyo iliwahimiza wasomi Wafante wa wakati huo kushukuru kwamba ‘’Wafante wanaona fahari kuwa Wafante, na hawaoni aibu kujiita majina yao ya kienyeji; wala kuzungumza kwa lugha zao; wala kuonekana wamevaa mavazi ya kikwao.’’[1]  Badala ya kuwa Waafrika-Wazungu, walitaka kuwa wasomi Waafrika wastaarabu.[2] Mawazo kama haya pia yalielezwa na wasomi wa Afrika ya Kusini wa karne ya kumi na tisa. (Wasomi wa Lovedale n.k). Hapa Afika ya Mashariki tuna mfano wa mshairi wa Tanzania, Shaaban Robert, na ule msemo wake maarufu, “Titi la mama li tamu, jingine halishi hamu.”
Baada ya Ghana kupata uhuru wake , mwaka 1957, Kwame Nkrumah hakuchelewa kuanzisha Kituo cha Lugha za Afrika. Na vile vile akaanzisha magazeti ya lugha za Kiafrika. Katika hotuba yake ya ufunguzi wa kongamano la kwanza la kimataifa la Wanataaluma wa Afrika lililofanyika Accra mwaka 1962, Kwame Nkurumah alieleza matumaini yake kwamba kongamano hilo litakuwa ni hatua muhimu kulifanya bara la Afrika kujithamini, na kuthamini historia na utamaduni wake; na kwamba lugha za Afrika zitachukua nafasi muhimu.
Nkrumah alilirudia tena suala hilo mwaka mmoja baadaye, alipokuwa akifungua taasisi ya Taaluma za Afrika ya Kwanza. Kwake yeye , suala la taaluma na uendelezwaji wa lugha za Afrika halikuwa ni suala la kuwekwa pembeni; bali aliamini kwamba lugha za Afrika ni lazima zichukue nafasi ya kati, kwa sababu zilikuwa ni kiungo muhimu katika taaluma, maendeleo na uhusiano wa Afrika na Waafrika wanaoishi nje ya Afrika. Nkrumah hakutaka Afrika ijitenge kilugha na sehemu nyingine za dunia, kwani aliijua nafasi na faida ya lugha nyingine za dunia kama vie Kiarabu, Kiingereza, Kifaransa na Kireno.
Wakati ambapo watu wengine waliziona lugha za Afrika kuwa ni duni katika pepo ya Kiingereza, Nkrumah aliziona lugha za Afrika kuwa zina thamani na nafasi sawa na lugha nyingine duniani katika kuijenga pepo ya pamoja. Kitu muhimu ni kwamba Nkrumah hakusema kwa maneno tu, lakini alihakikisha kwamba kuna nyenzo za kufanyia kazi hiyo na kulitimiza lengo hilo kwa vitendo. Lakini serikali za kijeshi zilizoipindua serikali ya Nkrumah ziliibadilisha sera hiyo na huku baadhi ya Waghana wa tabaka la kati wakishangilia. Waghana hao hawakutaka kuzuiliwa kuipanda ngazi ya kuwapeleka kwenye pepo ya lugha ya Kiingereza.
Nchini Kenya, mapambano dhidi ya ukoloni yalipelekea kuanzishwa kwa magazeti ya lugha za Kiafrika. Jomo Kenyatta aliwahi kuwa mhariri wa gazeti mojawapo kama hilo, lililoitwa Muguithania. Baadaye aliandika kitabu kwa Kikikuyu kiitwacho Kenya Bururi wa Ngui; yaani, Kenya, Nchi ya Migogoro. Hiki kilikuwa ni nyongeza ya kitabu chake alichokiandika kwa Kiingereza, Facing Mount Kenya. Serikali ya kikoloni ikayapiga marufuku magazeti hayo ya lugha za Kiafrika , na baadhi ya wahariri wake wakalazimika kukimbilia uhamishoni na wengine wakafungwa jela.
Baada ya uhuru wa Tanganyika mwaka 1961, Mwalimu Julius Nyerere akakifanya Kiswahili kuwa lugha ya taifa. Hatimaye, Kiswahili kikawa na kwao. Naye akaonyesha mifano kwa vitendo. Baadhi ya hotuba zake muhimu alizitoa kwa Kiswahili; na baadhi ya maandishi yake yakatafsiriwa kwa Kiswahili. Na hata akazitafsiri kwa Kiswahili tamthilia mbili za William Shakespeare-Julius Kaizari (Julius Caesar), na Mabepari wa Venisi (Merchants of Venice).
Wasomi kama hawa waliutumia ujuzi wao wa Kiingereza kuzizidishia uwezo jamii zao tofauti kabisa na Waafrika wa tabaka la kati la baada ya uhuru! Hawa ni wale ambao baadhi yao wameshika madaraka ya serikali, na ambao wamekuwa ni mateka wa lugha za ulaya.
Miaka kadhaa iliyopita, nafikiri miaka mitatu iliyopita, bunge la Kenya huru lilipiga kura kuzipiga marufuku lugha za Kiafrika zisizungumzwe katika maeneo rasmi, kwa mfano maofisini. Kichekesho ni kwamba bunge hilo halingekuwako kama si kwa sababu ya wafanyakazi na wakulima wadogo wadogo wanaozungumza lugha hizo za Kiafrika kuingia msituni na barabarani ili kupambana dhidi ya serikali ya kikoloni. Bila shaka bunge hilo halikuona kwamba mizizi yake inatokana na lugha za Kiafrika, bali inatokana na lugha ya Kiingereza na lugha nyinginezo za Ulaya. Sheria hiyo haijapitishwa kwa sababu tu Rais hakuitia sahihi.
Lugha imekuwa ni medani ya mapambano ya fikra. Lakini ninalotaka kulizungumzia hapa ni kwamba lugha ni uwanja wa mapambano baina ya utumwa na harakati za kujikomboa na kujipa uwezo. Historia ya lugha, ameandika Tom Paulin, mara nyingi huwa ni hadithi ya kutamalaki na kupora; ni hadithi ya kuziteka ardhi na kuziweka katika mamlaka ya walioziteka; au kuwalazimisha watu kufuata utamaduni fulani.[3]
Lugha, haidhuru iwe inatumiwa ndani au nje ya maeneo ya taaluma, imekuwa ni uwanja wa vita –  katika hali zote  -baina ya mtawala na mtawaliwa, hasa katika enzi za ukoloni. Katika hali kama hizo, lugha imekuwa ni silaha ya kutamalaki au ni silaha ya kupinga kutamalakiwa, sawa na silaha kama upanga. Kwa hakika, vita vikali zaidi vimepiganwa, na vinaendelea kupiganwa katika eneo hili.
Mshairi mmoja wa Kiingereza, Spencer, aliyeishi zama moja na Shakespeare, na ambaye aliandika kitabu maarufu, The Faerie Queen, aliueleza vizuri umuhimu wa kutumia silaha ya lugha katika kutamalaki. Katika mwaka 1599, aliandika kwamba, “imekuwa ni kawaida kwa anayetamalaki kuidharau lugha ya  anayemtamalakiwa na kumlazimisha kwa kila njia huyo anayemtamalaki kujifunza lugha yake (mtamalaki).” Spencer aliyaandika maneno haya katika kitabu chake A View of the Present State of Ireland. Katika kitabu hicho alitetea kupigwa marufuku mfumo wa majina ya watu wa taifa la Ireland – kitendo ambacho lengo lake lilikuwa ni kuzifuta kabisa kumbukumbu za taifa hilo. Udhibiti wa mfumo wa majina ya wananchi wa Ireland ulikuwa ni njia kuu iliyotumiwa na Waingereza kuitamalaki Ireland.
Kama alivyoeleza Tiny Crowley katika kitabu chake, War of Words: The Politics of Languages in Ireland 1537-2004, wavamizi mbalimbali wa Ufalme wa Uingereza walipitisha sheria kadhaa zilizokuwa na madhumuni ya kuilinda lugha ya Kiingereza isiingiliwe na kuathiriwa na lugha ya Ki-Ireland, Ki-Gaeli (Gaelic). Moja ya mfululizo wa sheria hizo ni sheria ya Kilkenny ya mwaka 1369, baada ya Uingereza kuiteka na kuikalia Ireland. Kwa mfano, amri mojawapo ya sheria hiyo ilitishia kwamba serikali itamnyang’anya ardhi yake Mwingereza yeyote au mwananchi yeyote wa Ireland ambaye atazungumza na mwenzake kwa lugha ya kwao, kinyume na sheria hiyo.[4] Kwa hiyo Spencer aliyaandika maneno yake hayo kutokana na sheria hiyo, ambayo inaonyesha haikufaulu kama ilivyotarajiwa. Kwani kama ingekuwa na athari yoyote, Spencer asingekuwa na haja ya kutaka sheria hiyo itekelezwe baada ya zaidi ya miaka mia mbili kupita.Yeye Spencer mwenyewe alikuwa ni Mwingereza mlowezi (au setla) katika sehemu ya Munster. Mmojawapo wa majirani zake alikuwa ni mlowezi mwenzake kutoka Uingereza, Walter Raleigh-ambaye ndiye aliyeanzisha makao ya walowezi Virginia, Amerika.
Inawezekana kwamba hakukuwako na uhusiano wa moja kwa moja baina ya yaliyotokea Ireland wakati huo na yale yaliyowakumba Waafrika waliochukuliwa kwa nguvu kutoka Afrika na kwenda kufanywa watumwa katika mashamba ya Marekani yaliyomilikiwa na walowezi waliokuja baada ya kina Walter Raleigh. Hata hivyo, katika mashamba hayo Waafrika waliotiwa utumwani hawakuruhusiwa kuzungumza kwa lugha zao. Hata mawasiliano ya kutumia ngoma pia yalikatazwa. Vilevile, hawakuwa na ruhusa ya kutumia majina yao ya Kiafrika. Na Waafrika waliopatikana wakizungumza lugha zao waliadhibiwa na hata wengine kuuliwa. Lengo la yote hayo lilikuwa ni lile lile: kuwasahaulisha uhusiano wao na kwao walikotoka.
Japan nayo ilifanya kama hivyo baada ya kuitamalaki Korea: iliwalazimisha Wakorea kutumia lugha ya Kijapani na mfumo w Kijapani wa kupeana majina. Sera hiyo ilitupiliwa mbali baada ya Japani kushindwa vita ya pili ya dunia. Lakini athari ya sera hiyo ingali ipo: Mpaka hivi karibuni, ndani ya Japan kwenyewe, wenye asili ya Korea walilazimika kuwa na majina ya Kijapani. (Shahidi wa hili ni Esther W. Dungumano, Mkurugenzi wa uhusiano wa kimataifa wa Chuo hiki cha Dar es Salaam. Yeye anakichapa Kijapani kama yuko Tokyo!)
Katika bara la Afrika, baada ya kulivamia na kulitamalaki, Wafaransa, Waingereza na Wareno, walifuata sera kama hizo. Ingawa wakoloni hao hawakuzipiga marufuku lugha za Kiafrika, lakini waliziteremshia hadhi yake ya kuwa lugha zenye uwezo, maarifa na kuwa ni kitambulisho cha wenye lugha hizo. Hata kama waliziruhusu lugha hizo kutumiwa katika mfumo wa elimu, ilikuwa ni katika hatua za mwanzo mwanzo tu kabla ya wanafunzi kugeuzwa na kuwa wasemaji wa Kiingereza au Kifaransa. Siijui sheria yeyote ya utawala wa kikoloni iliyopiga marufuku majina ya Kiafrika. lakini kutokana na athari za mamlaka ya kiutamaduni, karibu kila Mwafrika aliyepata elimu ya kisiasa ameliambatanisha jina la kizungu katika jina lake la kiafrika. Sera za kikoloni kuhusu lugha zilikuwa zinaendeleza sera za vita ya kutamalaki kwa kutumia mbinu za kilugha.
Kulikuwa na muingereza mmoja: jina lae ni Macauley. Yeye alikuwa ameajiriwa  katika kampuni ya British East India ambayo ndiyo ilikuwa inatawala India. Yeye ndiye aliyependekeza sera za kutumia kiingereza kwa kuwasomesha  badala ya kihindi au Sanskrit .Yeye alisema “lazima tuwe na kikundi cha wahindi ambao kwa rangi ya ngozi ni Wahindi lakini kwa akili ni Waingereza. Kikundi hiki kitakuwa kati yetu  na umma tunaoutawala.” Fikra kama hizi ndizo zilipelekwa kwa makoloni mengine ya waingereza. Kikundi au tabaka ambalo kwa ngozi ni Waafrika, kwa ubongo ni Waingereza.
Bara la Afrika linaendelea kuteseka na kudhalilika kutokana na kutamalakiwa kilugha. Uhuru wa kisiasa tulioupata labda umeikomboa miili yetu tu, lakini haukuzikomboa bongo zetu. Na hayo ndiyo matokeo ya kutamalakiwa kilugha kwa muda mrefu.
Kutokana na hali hiyo, hivi leo bara la Afrika kuna mgawanyiko mkubwa baina ya Waafrika wenye elimu wa tabaka la kati  na Waafrika wengine kwa jumla. Na hilo ndilo lengo la ukoloni. Tukiurudia ule mfano tuliotoa wa kwamba lugha ni silaha ya kivita – imekuwa ni kana kwamba majemedari waafrika wameshikwa mateka katika kambi ya adui. Na nisemapo “Majemedari”, simaanishi serikali zetu tu; bali ninamaanisha tabaka zima la wasomi. Na hakuna hata mmoja katika sisi anayeweza kujigamba kwamba hakuathirika na huko kukubali kushindwa kwetu au kuendesha maisha yetu kisomi na kitaaluma na huku tukiendelea kuwa mateka.
Kwa sababu hiyo ya kuwa sisi ni mateka tunalazimishwa kulitazama bara la Afrika kama kwamba sisi ni wageni hapa. Nyanja kadha wa kadha za elimu yetu kuhusu Afrika zimejikita katika ule mfumo wa kikoloni wa aliyeko nje akiangalia ndani. Tunakusanya elimu  na maarifa mengine ya humu barani Afrika  na kwa msaada wa waafrika wenyeji, halafu tunaficha elimu na maarifa hayo katika lugha ya Ulaya kwa faida ya wale tu wanaofahamu lugha hiyo. Yaani tunaendelea kuvikusanya vito vya thamani vya kisomi na kuviweka katika majumba ya makumbusho (Archives) ya lugha ya Ulaya. Jamii ya wasomi Waafrika – walioko nje na ndani ya bara la Afrika – wamesalimu amri na wamekubali hali hii kwamba ni hali ya kawaida.
Mwezi Septemba mwaka jana, kulikuwa na kongamano kubwa mjini Leeds Uingereza. Kongamano hilo lilihudhuriwa na zaidi ya wataalam mia tano kutoka Afrika na Ulaya. Nikawauliza wataalam waliohudhuria: Ni wangapi kati yao waliandika angalau kitabu kimoja tu kwa lugha yeyote ya kiafrika? Hakuna hata mmoja aliyeinua mkono! Je, aliyeandika nakala moja tu kwa lugha ya Kiafrika? Hakuna hata mmoja aliyeinua mkono! Je, aliyeandika ukurasa mmoja tu kwa lugha za Kiafrika? Hapo ikainuliwa mikono mitatu! Mikono mitatu tu!! – katika kongamano kubwa kama hilo lililohudhuriwa na wasomi na wataalamu wa kiwango cha juu wanaojishughulisha na taaluma za bara la Afrika. Niliuliza maswali kama hayo nchini Nigeria, Kenya, Zambia, Ghana mbele ya hadhira ya Waafrika mashuhuri. Matokeo hayakuwa tofauti na haya!
Labda hoja yangu itaeleweka vizuri zaidi lau tutaliuliza swali hilo kwa namna tofauti: Unaweza kumfikiria Profesa wa Historia au Utamaduni wa Italia, ambaye hafahamu hata neno moja la Kitaliani? Au Profesa wa Historia ya Ufaransa asiyejua Kifaransa. Au Profesa wa Kigiriki au Kilatini ambaye hazifahamu lugha hizo? Bila shaka utajibu kwamba hilo si jambo la kawaida. Lakini inapohusu taaluma za Afrika, hali hiyo imegeuzwa na kuwa ya kawaida. Huu ni mzaha, kama si upumbavu! Bara kubwa kabisa duniani – kubwa kuliko mabara ya Ulaya, Amerika na China yakikusanywa pamoja – kutendewa hivi!
Hali hii ni lazima ibadilishwe. Na hili litawezekana tu iwapo kutakuwako na ushirikiano baina ya asasi za taaluma-  ambazo zitakubali na zitakuwa tayari kufuata mbinu tofauti za kutafutia elimu; na wachapishaji – ambao watakubali kuwa na mikakati tofauti ya uchapishaji; na wasomi ambao watakuwa tayari kuzidisha juhudi zao ili kulifanikisha lengo hili.
Lakini kuna  mshirika mwingine ambaye ni muhimu pia. Naye ni serikali; serikali zenye sera za kuliendeleza na kuzikuza lugha za Afrika. Tusisahau kwamba wanaoziendesha serikali hizo, wao wenyewe wamefinyangwa na asasi za kitaaluma. Labda kama wakati walipokuwa wanafunzi misimamo yao ya kuendesha serikali ingekuwa imekabiliwa na changamoto, huenda wangeibuka kuwa majemedari walio tayari kuongoza wakiwa ni watu huru wanaotaka kutafuta mbinu nyingine za kupigana na kuelewa, badala ya kuwa ni mateka. Lakini hakuna mabadiliko makubwa yanayoweza kupatikana ikiwa serikali zinashinikizwa kufanya shughuli zake bila ya kutoka nje ya mipaka iliyowekwa na wanaotamalaki.
Kuna dalili chache za matumaini ya kwamba mambo huenda yanabadilika, na kwamba Kiswahili kiko mstari wa mbele. Kufaulu kwa Kiswahili nchini Tanzania ni matokeo ya wasomi wa aina ya kwanza tuliowataja; yaani wale waliochukua kutoka lugha za Ulaya kile walichoweza, na kukihifadhi katika lugha za Afrika. Tumeshamtaja Mwalimu Julius Nyerere. Kama tunavyojua, yeye alihitimu katika vyuo vikuu viwili maarufu vya wakati wake – Makerere na Edinburgh. Aliposhika uongozi wa taifa hili, aliweka sera  – kwa nadharia na kwa vitendo – za kukipa Kiswahili hadhi na uwezo.[5] Urithi mkubwa wa Nyerere ni wa lugha; kutuachia mfano wa kuonyesha bila shaka kwamba lugha za Kiafrika zina uwezo  wa kukua na kukuza fikra kama lugha zingine za dunia. Heshima tunayoweza kumkumbuka nayo ni kukiendeleza na kukikuza Kiswahili mpaka kiwe moja  ya lugha za dunia.
Pia jambo la kushangaza kuona kwamba Tanzania imezaa shirika la uchapishaji la Walter Bgoya [kama] shirika la Henry Chakava, East African Educational Publishers, ambalo limekuwa na msimamo wa kuchapisha vitabu kwa lugha za Afrika, zaidi maandishi ya Kiswahili ya kiwango cha juu. Shirika hilo ni Mkuki na Nyota la nalo limechapisha tafsiri za Kiswahili za vitabu vya karibu waandishi wote maarufu wa Afrika, ambavyo viliandikwa kwa Kiingereza na Kifaransa.
Lakini, je, asasi za taaluma kwa ujumla zinafuata nyayo hizi? Hata hapa kuna dalili za matumaini: Hatua ndogo, ingawa yenye athari kubwa, imechukuliwa katika uwanja wa falsafa kutokana na kuchapishwa kitabu kinachoitwa Listening to Ourselves, ambacho kimehaririwa na msomi mwenye asili mchanganyiko wa Carribea na Kanada, anayeitwa Chike Jeffers (Kimechapishwa na State University of  New York ( SUNY)). Kitabu chenyewe ni mkusanyiko wa insha kuhusu falsafa  ambazo zimeandikwa kwa lugha mbalimbali za Afrika ya Mashariki na Afrika Magharibi -kwa mfano, Kiwolof, Kijaluo, Kiigbo, Kiakan, Kikikuyu – na tafsiri zake kwa Kiingereza. Waandishi wa insha hizo, miongoni mwao akiwemo hayati Emmanuel Eze, ni wanataaluma Waafrika maarufu wanaoshughulika na falsafa; na ambao wanashikilia nyadhifa za uprofesa katika vyuo vikuu vya nje ya Afrika. Hii ni mara yangu ya kwanza kuona maandishi kwa lugha za Afrika, yaliyoandikwa na wanafalsafa wa zama zetu.
Msomi mwenye asili ya Carribea amelifanyia bara la Afrika jambo ambalo ni la kwanza kufanywa. Kwa kufanywa jambo kama hili, Jeffers ameingia katika orodha ndefu ya Wacarribea wenziwe waliolifanyia kazi bara la Afrika; kwa mfano, Marcus Garvey, CLR James, George Padmore, W.E. Du Bois, Walter Rodney, kwa kuwataja wachache tu.
Kitabu hiki cha Jaffers kinatukumbusha lugha nyingine, ambayo haijatumiwa kwa mapana yake katika kuzipa uwezo lugha za Afrika. Lugha yenyewe ni Tafsiri. Katika kitabu changu, Something Torn and New, nimeeleza kwamba tafsiri ni lugha ya lugha mbalimbali. Hakuna utamaduni hata mmoja duniani ambao haukufaidika na tafsiri. Kwa hivyo, hapana shaka kwamba tafsiri baina ya lugha za Afrika zenyewe kwa zenyewe, na tafsiri baina ya lugha za Afrika na lugha nyingine za dunia, zitazifaidisha tamaduni za Afrika na tamaduni nyingine za dunia. Vyuo vyetu vinapaswa kuwa ni viwanda vya shughuli za kutafsiri maandishi ya lugha za kigeni kwa lugha zetu Afrika.
Lakini mambo haya yanahitaji mshikamano na ushirikiano mkubwa baina ya wasomi, wanataaluma, wachapishaji na wanaotayarisha sera za elimu. Wasomi, walioko ndani na nje ya Afrika, ni lazima waongoze njia na kushika nafasi zao za heshima za tangu jadi. Katika tamaduni na historia zote za dunia, msomi amekuwa ni msaka njia. Na katika tamaduni zote, wasomi kama hawa imewabidi kulipa bei ghali, wakati mwingine hata kwa kupoteza roho zao. Na mimi nimelipa-  ingawa si malipo makubwa hivyo. Lakini nimelipa; kufungwa gerezani, na hata kulazimika kuishi uhamishoni. Wasomi wa zama zetu wasiyakimbie mapambano. Wasiukimbie uwanja wa vita.

Lakini  serikali na asasi zetu nyingine nazo ziache kuvizika vichwa vyao kwenye mashimo ya huu unaoitwa utandawazi. Utandawazi ulianza tangu karne ya kumi na saba wakati mwili wa Mwafrika ulipolazimishwa kufanya kazi ya kitumwa katika mashamba. Na kazi hiyo ya kitumwa ikapelekea kwenye utumwa wa kikoloni. Hivi leo, utandawazi unategemea maliasili ambayo bado yanapatikana katika bara kubwa kabisa duniani-  Afrika. Serikali zetu nyingi, na wanataaluma na wasomi wetu wengi, wanaishi katika njozi kwa kufikiria. Kwamba ili kuishi katika tandawazi, ni lazima wapotelee kwenye lugha ya Kiingereza.
Watu kama hao inawabidi waukumbuke ukweli huu: Wao walitupa lafudhi ya Kiingereza; na sisi tukawapa njia ya kutuingilia katika bara letu (They gave us accent, We gave them access). Katika karne za kumi na saba na kumi na nane, waliuchukua mwili wa Mwafrika. Katika karne ya kumi na tisa na ishirini walipata njia ya kuchukua shaba yetu, dhahabu yetu, almasi yetu; na sasa mafuta yetu. Hivi leo, wakati ambapo tumeshughulika na kuzifanya lafudhi zetu za Kiingereza kuwa bora zaidi za kupora mali ya bara letu.
Tusipoteze wakati wetu na nyenzo zetu kwa kujibidiisha kuboresha lafudhi zetu za Kiingereza. Badala yake tutumie wakati wetu mwingi zaidi na nyenzo tulizonazo, ili kuulinda utajiri wa Afrika kwa kila hali. Lugha ni silaha ya kivita.
Tuyakumbuke maneno ya Shaaban Robert: Titi la Mama li tamu, jingine haliishi hamu.
Tuseme hivi: ukijua lugha zote za dunia, na hujui ya mama, wewe u mtumwa; umewezwa. Lakini ukijua lugha ya mama na kuiongezea lugha za dunia, wewe wajiweza, yani umejiongezea uwezo. Lazima tuchague baina ya kujiweza na kuwezwa na natumai Afrika itajichagulia kujiweza badala ya kuwezwa.
Ahsante sana kwa kunisikiliza.

[1] David Kimble, A Political History of Ghana, Oxford, 1963, uk. 518.
[2] A.G.Hoplins, “R.B.Blaize: Merchant Prince of West Africa”, Tarikh, vol.1, no.2, 1966.
[3] Tazama kitabu chake, Empires of the World.
[4] Tiny Crowley, War of Words: The Politics of Language in Ireland-1537-2004
[5] Baadhi ya watu wana fikra ya kwamba lugha ya taifa inaweza kujengwa tu juu ya makaburi ya lugha nyingine za Afrika. Kuwa na lugha moja tu ya taifa kumelinganishwa na dhana ya ki-Ulaya ya taifa-dhana ambayo ilibuniwa katika karne ya kumi na saba, mwanzoni mwa ubepari wa kisasa na ukoloni.
Published in: on November 28, 2013 at 11:44 am  Leave a Comment  

Vodacom Elimu Expo 2013

Vodacom Elimu Expo 2013 is an annual event organized by Vodacom Foundation. The event is happening at Posta Grounds at Kijitonyama opposite COSTECH



Published in: on August 30, 2013 at 10:04 am  Leave a Comment  

The Next Millionares by Paul Zane Pilzer

This book by Paul Zane Pilzer-Economist/Entrepreneur/Professor who is guru in Wellness Industry and Network marketing. The Next Millionares Explains how the internet has barely gotten started and how you can capitalize on it.  Also explains why home-based business entrepreneurs will be among the richest in our new economy and how you can find the greatest economic potential in the “technology gap.” 


Published in: on January 15, 2013 at 5:49 am  Leave a Comment  
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Re-defining Quality Education: Stakeholders Opinion by Godfrey Telli

A new book about Education written by Godfrey Tell, P.hd available in Amazon


Published in: on January 15, 2013 at 5:16 am  Leave a Comment  
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Nature or nurture: Decoding DNA of the Entrepreneur

I got to know this study while watching a TED Talk video What can fear teach us by Karen Thompson Walker.  Network Solution Small Business published an article What Trait Do Successful Entrepreneurs Have in Common? by Maria Valdez Haubrich. Here is the article in full

Are entrepreneurs made, or born? In other words, are the characteristics needed to be a successful small business owner innate or can they be learned? According to a new study by Ernst & Young, the answer to this puzzle is…well, a bit of both.

The study, Nature or Nurture: Decoding the Entrepreneur (click the link to download the study), surveyed 685 entrepreneurs worldwide as well as winners of Ernst & Young’s Entrepreneur of the Year award. The results challenge the notion that entrepreneurs tend to start businesses without a formal education and without experiencing corporate life.

Nearly half (45 percent) of respondents did not start their first business until they were age 30 or over. Almost 60 percent said they had previously worked in a corporate environment before striking out on their own.

Asked what was the most important source of learning that helped them with their business, one-third of respondents said it was their experience as an employee, 30 percent said it was higher education, and 26 percent said it was a mentor or mentors.

“Entrepreneurial leaders are defined as much by their early business experience, cultural background and external environment as they are by any innate personal characteristics,” said Maria Pinelli, Global Vice Chair Strategic Growth Markets for Ernst & Young, in announcing the study results. “Nurture, not nature, does appear to be more important in shaping the entrepreneurial mindset.”

But not so fast. At the same time, the study found that successful entrepreneurs share certain behaviors and attitudes that are differentiate them from the average corporate employee or CEO. When asked to name the top three most important qualities of an entrepreneurial leader, more than three-fourths of those surveyed said ‘having a vision’, 73 percent said ‘passion’ and 64 percent said ‘drive’.

“These findings highlight that most successful entrepreneurs share a unique combination of seeing opportunity where others see only risk,” said Pinelli. “And they tend to be optimists and believe they can succeed despite the fact that everyone else is telling them they cannot.”

For those who’ve got the entrepreneurial combination of nature and nurture, starting just one business is not enough. Sixty percent had started three or more companies, 20 percent had launched six or more and 10 percent said they had founded more than 10 companies so far.


Published in: on January 7, 2013 at 12:42 pm  Leave a Comment  
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